Education for a New Time: The Purpose of Education

Given the catalogue of calamities raging round the world, one could be forgiven for concluding that we are a civilisation in terminal decline. The socio-economic system, which promotes negative divisive values dominates all areas of life and is the cause of much of our difficulties. It is an outworn, unjust way of organising society, does not serve the majority of people – the 99.9%, and is causing far-reaching damage to the planet that, unless radical action is taken, may well prove irreparable.
The environmental crisis is the greatest of a range of interconnected problems facing humanity, the answers to which are not to be found within the existing inflexible, unimaginative paradigm, based as it is on false values and misguided conclusions. And as they repeatedly prove, the current batch of politicians lacks the intellectual imagination, vision and wisdom to meet the worldwide challenges.
A new awareness is needed; systems re-designed based on altogether different values to the existing ones; and a fair and just economic model inculcated. Values that unite people, cultivate cooperation, tolerance and understanding, in place of competition, prejudice and ignorance. Values that will allow a sense of unity and social responsibility to naturally flower. New systems, imbued with perennially accepted values of goodness – sharing, freedom and social justice, would take much of the stress and fear out of life, and allow people to trust one another. Under such circumstances peace may even be possible. 
At the heart of the required changes – which need to be both gradual and radical, must be education, formal and non-formal. Like all our current structures, institutionalised education throughout the world is in crisis, and fundamental change is badly needed. Reform is under discussion in many countries, ‘new’ educational structures are being looked at and governments everywhere are debating how to alter the existing, inadequate methods. All to often however these discussions are limited by existing ideologies, reforms are motivated by the obsessive desire for economic growth, a narrow nationalistic approach to life and a simplistic view of the needs of the individual.
New methodologies are needed that inculcate true individuality and creative independent thinking. That is to say, thinking freed from sociological and psychological conditioning, which is essential if the children of today are to find within themselves the resources needed to re-shape society in a way that better meet the needs of the majority and save our planet 
Defining lasting purpose
It seems logical that the aims of education should be consistent with the purpose of life. This fundamental question as to purpose is one that most of us rarely consider, or have not the time or energy to look at. “To most of us, the meaning of life as a whole is not of primary importance,” Krishnamurti stated, “and our education emphasizes secondary values, merely making us proficient in some branch of knowledge.” He continues, “Education is not merely acquiring knowledge, gathering and correlating facts; it is to see the significance of life as a whole.” 
Unity, relationship, self-awareness, these must be at the heart of all areas of education, Bertrand Russell states that, “any serious educational theory must consist of two parts: a conception of the ends of life, and a science of psychological dynamics, i.e. of the laws of mental change.“[8]  
In relating the purpose of education to the ‘purpose of life’ we appear to create an intractable problem, there being various contradictory views compounding the subjectivity of the investigation. However we may make certain generally accepted statements, which whilst they may offend the offended, will allow sufficiently broad interpretations and creative expression to be investigated in all areas of educational work. For education must concern itself with life as a whole, as Krishnamurti made clear –  “to bring about right education, we must obviously understand the meaning of life as a whole.”  
Once fundamentals are established, not tabulated, but revealed, and broadly accepted, for they infringe not on common sense, being based on its simplicity, forms in which such purposes may be made manifest will quite naturally follow.
Formal education for the most part is seen as a feeding system for employers, a means to train and indoctrinate young people to become people who will do as they are told. Efficient workers who will strengthen the nations accounts and enhance its ability to compete on the ‘world stage’. Krishnamurti: “we are turning out, as if through a mould, a type of human being, whose chief interest is to find security, to become somebody important, or to have a good time with as little thought as possible,”
With conformity colouring all areas of schooling, from the nursery to the university. Children are rarely seen as individuals, with certain innate gifts and talents, but as [potential] workers or economic assets; encouraged, forced in many cases through economic pressures, and the impulse to ‘succeed’, to move from school to university and into employment as quickly as possible.
Dissent from the state view or company line, whilst seemingly tolerated, is not really allowed, being cleverly suppressed.  Methods of control are swiftly enforced, debt being a primary weapon in the armoury of control.  Individuality is subdued under the weight of anxiety, fuelled by fear engendering competition and the mantra that success is all that matters – no matter the impact, psychologically, physiologically and/or environmentally.
This distortion of function, into a system of conditioning, indoctrination and manipulation is far from the purpose of education and it is time these inhibiting methods were abandoned in favour of a new, creative approach to education and social living. One that facilitates independent thinking, fosters cooperation and tolerance, and encourages free expression and broad social participation.
Unity of Life
The individual and society are not separate, but interrelated, interconnected, whether that society is a family, a classroom or school, a neighbourhood, town, city, country or planet. All are the collective expression of those individuals that live within it and all who live in any particular society are responsible for it.
Each and every one of us is an integral part of a whole. That whole we call humanity – we are brothers and sisters of one humanity – and that whole forms part of the planetary life with its various kingdoms. And that living totality, which we call planet Earth forms a part of a larger whole known as the solar system, which is but a part of the Universe. And on and on into infinity stretches this extraordinary unity.
Life is one; a totality toward which and within which, men, women and children everywhere should be made aware; encouraged to contribute their particular colour and tone, to share their gifts with the group, the society of which they are an integral part. The decentralisation of the individual; the realisation of unity; and the cultivation of relationship with the group should be seen as one of the key purpose’s of all aspects of education.
In Education in the New Age, Alice A Bailey[1] makes clear that “through education self-consciousness must be unfolded until the man recognises that his consciousness is a corporate part of a greater whole. He blends then with the group interests, activities and objectives. They are eventually his and he becomes group conscious. This is Love. It leads to wisdom, which is love in manifested activity. Such should be the major objective of all true educational endeavours. Love of self (self-consciousness), becomes love of those around us (group-consciousness), become love of the whole (God consciousness). Such are the steps.” The movement in conscious awareness outlined by Bailey, gradually shifts the individual’s identification away from the little separate self, weakening selfish behaviour and building awareness of the whole, thereby encouraging selfless-ness, social responsibility and service.
Relationship and Awareness
In ‘Education and the Significance of Life’, Krishnamurti says that, “the purpose of education is to cultivate right relationship, not only between individuals, but also between the individual and society.”  Not only is relationship central to education, but as Krishnamurti points out, ‘right relationship’. Present educational methods and social values emphasis separation and division, being based as they commonly are on competition, and nationalism.
This distorting method of motivation has pervaded every area of education. in such and atmosphere right relationship, in which harmlessness is an expressed quality, and where seeing, free from bias is made extremely difficult. Values that emphasis unity, cooperation, and tolerance will aid the establishing of ‘right relationship’. These should be cultivated in all areas and at all stages of education. 
Relationship and awareness are closely related; the cultivation of self-awareness or self-knowledge, aids ‘right relationship’ and helps to bring about a sense of integration within the individual. Alice Bailey affirms that “the new education will primarily be concerned with the scientific and conscious bridging between the various aspects of the human being, thus producing coordination and synthesis.” Integrated individuals at harmony with themselves will feed into and create a society at ease. Harmony and order within, manifesting as peace without. As Krishnamurti states, “the individual is made up of different entities, but to emphasize the differences and to encourage development of a definite type leads to complexities. Education should bring about the integration of those entities-for without integration life becomes a series of conflicts and sorrows. Of what value is it to be trained as a lawyer if we perpetuate litigation, what significance has technical and industrial capacity if we use it to destroy one another”?
In an interview on Education Benjamin Creme states his view that, ”education, in the first place, has to show the child that it is a member of a world family. Children need to be shown that we are not living alone in one large or small country, but in a world shared by 5.7 billion people. The child, above all, should be taught that this is the fundamental position of his/her life on Earth: that they are one of a group, a family.”[2]  Awareness of the group: classmates, family, community and ultimately humanity as a whole, and the environment in which ‘we live and move and have our being’ by definition encourages a sense of responsibility.
The cultivation of group/social responsibility and unity runs contrary to much current educational practice and methodology. L.Lee Knefelkamp – (Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University) states, “we now suffer from more separation and fragmentation than ever before”, and that “our sense of mutuality has been severely shaken.”[6]  With the foundations education, within institutions and society, including the home and the workplace, being built on competition, conformity and schooling for work, divisions have been compounded. Krishnamurti, “our education emphasizes secondary values, merely making us proficient in some branch of knowledge. Though knowledge and efficiency are necessary, to lay chief emphasis on them only leads to conflict and confusion.” The individual is encouraged to value their own progress, success and material acquisition over the well being of the group, often in fact at its expense.
Ambition, the fulfilment of personal material goals and the cultivation of attitudes, which exclude and see others as ‘the competition’ fuels division and separation, leading to conflict and suffering. Krishnamurti expresses it thus; “we all want to be on top, and this desire creates constant conflict within ourselves and with our neighbour; it leads to competition, envy, animosity and finally war.”  The emphasis on individual achievement denies social responsibility and sets the individual apart, which as Krishnamurti makes clear ‘creates constant conflict within ourselves and with our neighbour’.
Values and methods that establish group relationships and encourage group awareness would help to create an integrated world community. Social responsibility naturally flows from the awareness of the integrated nature of life, and of ones place within the whole. John Dewey felt the impulse to help others is a natural human quality experienced by all children, in Education for Social Change he states, “the child’s natural desire [is] to give out, to do, and this means to serve”.  Service flows from, and generates responsibility for others and ones environment, it naturally comes about as self awareness flowers. As Alice Bailey states “identification with group purposes and plans is the natural attribute of the soul. As this identification is carried forward on mental and soul levels, it produces a corresponding activity on the personal life and this activity we call service.” Service, we might defines as, action undertaken for the benefit of others, for the enrichment of the group, with little or no selfish motive. 
Demonstrations of social responsibility flow ‘naturally’ from an awareness of ones place within the whole and help to facilitate a natural realisation of the unity of all life, which encourages values of tolerance, cooperation and understanding of others –  Principles of Goodness we could call them.
Spiritual Basis
Such ideas moves us to think of education as that which, amongst other things enables relationship with the ‘Will of Life’ that imbues all form with purpose. Establishing relationship with this – ‘divine purpose’ and cultivating actions consistent with its nature, should be seen as a fundamental purpose of education. Rudolph Steiner explained that, “when we confront education earnestly it is demanded of us not only to acknowledge for the peace of our soul, but to will God’s will, to act the intentions of God. To do this however, we need a spiritual basis for education.”[3]
Education that de-centralises, that places value in service, encourages self-knowledge and ‘right relationship’ with oneself and others, will help create a quite space within, enabling one to respond to what Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (founder of The Theosophical Society in 1875 and author of The Secret Doctrine) described as ‘The Voice of the Silence’, in which echoes, what she called, ‘the intentions of God’. Krishnamurti affirms, “when there is self-knowledge, the power of creating illusions ceases, and only then is it possible for reality or God to be known”.
Illusions flow from all constructs of the self as separate, and reinforce negative aspects of living such as fear and guilt. Separation is regarded as ‘the great illusion’ and is the seed for all mental constructs that veil reality. What higher purpose could education possibly have than to shatter the ‘great illusion’ and respond to divine purpose; to “will Gods Will” as Steiner puts it.    
An understanding and awareness of the spiritual basis of all life needs to be at the root of education. To date education has focused on the external, the material, the ephemeral, now it is time to broaden this approach and relate the spiritual to the material, to emphasis the life within the form.
Pragmatic spirituality underpinning all areas of education, formal and non-formal alike, will transform education, placing value and quality as expressions of Being at the heart of all areas of learning and communal living. Such a shift in approach is essential if we are to re-imagine civilisation and bring about the much needed fundamental changes in society.
Central to this revolution in consciousness must be education, which in its current form neglects what Maria Montessori called, “the most basic of all needs of the child – the exigencies of his spirit and his soul. The human being that lives within the child remains stifled therein.”[4]  Alice Bailey makes the point even more clearly saying, “the task of the new education is (therefore) the coordination of the personality, eventually bringing about its at-one-ment with the soul.” A living spirituality underpinning all areas of education, understood as that which expands the evolving consciousness into greater awareness, deeper understanding, and more purposeful living, for this to take place there must be freedom, of thought and being. 
Ideological identity
For freedom to be realised ideologies – religious, political, economic etc, need to come to an end. The encrusted doctrine of opinions that form ‘isms of all kinds isolate and exclude, and they should be rigorously questioned and challenged. Any such debate is greatly threatening to those seeking to build a world in their making. John Dewey sates, “Anyone who has begun to think, places some portion of the world in jeopardy.” [10]
Participation in the life of a nation, lets call it a democracy, is greatly limited where there is limited or restricted access to formal education, where literacy is poor, where the freedom to think and articulate ones views cogently is discouraged, and where education is largely based on economics. For these reasons the ‘New Rulers of the World’, who differ little from the Old rulers of the world, are against  liberal education – no matter the rhetoric and party/State line. Noam Chomsky makes this clear, saying “the anti-democratic thrust of opinion in what are called democratic societies is really ferocious, and for good reason. Because the freer the society gets, the more dangerous the great beast becomes and the more you have to be careful to cage it somehow.”[11] The ‘Great Beast’ is what Alexander Hamilton (a founding father of The United States and chief staff aid to George Washington) called ‘the people’ – the 99.9%. Chomsky again, “as freedom grows, the need to coerce and control opinion also grows if you want to prevent the great beast from doing something with its freedom” – like challenging the status quo.
In order for education to enable democratic participation, which is involvement in every aspect of society, communities, the workplace, schooling – every area, it must be purged of all ideological influences. Specifically, but not exclusively, the ideology of the ‘market’ with its political power; democracy based on the ‘market’ – capitalist based democracy, is a very distorted version of democracy.  Education based on corporate politics demands that young people be conditioned in a particular manner; such polluted ideas have no place in the ‘new time’ or the movement of change sweeping through the world and no place in  education. 
I think I am what I think
Education, within schools, universities and the home, has been used as a vehicle for the perpetuation of ideology and control. Conformity has been the norm and goal. Much talk is given to independence and fostering a creative spirit and enquiry, whilst subtly, and not so subtly, methodologies are employed that manipulate the child to accept certain ideas; ideas that breed intolerance and prejudice and isolate the individual from the whole.
It is the conditioned identification of the self with an ideology, which is the root of the insistence that a particular set of ideas and the resulting view of life is correct. The ideologue becomes the ism. Each and every ism, or doctrinal construct is as deadly as the next. Self-identification with any belief system traps the one identified and fuels divisive thoughts, words and deeds, Krishnamurti “if in our relationship with ideas we justify one ideology in opposition to another, mutual distrust and ill-will are the inevitable results.” 
When we identify ourselves with any ideology, we limit, or trap the self, and set up a brittle basis upon which self-identity and relationship rests. We become protective of the position adopted and fearful of any weakness in its design being revealed. For the ideology to be seen to be ‘wrong’ or limited, proven to be so perhaps, one is seen to have failed. Such failure then is a failure not simply of judgement but of who and what one is.
Through fostering expectation and encouraging ambition, the cultivation of seperative attitudes takes place, instilling negative values apposed to perennial principles of goodness, Krshnamurti “education should help us to discover lasting values so that we do not merely cling to formulas or repeat slogans, it should help us to break down our national and social barriers, instead of emphasizing them.” Self-awareness, which allows for self-knowledge will aid in the deconstruction of ‘isms and the flowering of intelligence. “Understanding comes only through self-knowledge, which is awareness of ones total psychological process. Thus education in the true sense is the understanding of oneself.” The understanding of oneself, of the total make up of the individual, the innate potential, the gifts, as well as the negative tendencies and patterns, is a main purpose of education. 
Freedom to Think the Unthinkable
Freedom to think is, in principle, if not in fact, a quality of democracy; democracy is participation, involvement and sharing, Chomsky, “a truly democratic community is one in which the general public has the opportunity for meaningful and constructive participation in the formation of social policy:  in their own immediate community, in the workplace, the society at large.” [13]  In order for there to be ‘meaningful and constructive participation’, all members of society need to be ‘well’ educated. By which is meant, educated to think freely, or to allow freedom of thought to take place.
Within a so called democratic society freedom of the individual is greatly restricted, unless the expression of said freedom is consistent with the prevailing ideology. Conformity to the ideal is expected, in fact insisted upon and fiercely promoted through the powerful tools of propaganda, the media, advertising, organised religion and educational. To resists the pressure to adopt the prevalent ideology takes great strength and independence of mind.  The social pressure to conform and ‘fit in’ is great, within all areas of social living; children (on the whole) yearn to be liked, loved in fact, by their parents and peers, and adopt all manner of behaviour patterns of conformity and self manipulation in order to be so. Krishnamurti  says, “to be different from the group or to resist  environment is not easy and is often risky as long as we worship success. The urge to be successful, which is the pursuit of reward, whether in the material or in the so-called spiritual sphere, the search for inward and outward security, the desire for comfort-this whole process smothers discontent, puts and end to spontaneity and breeds fear.”
Freedom to be
The purpose of education must be to establish unity of being, within the individual, between people and between mankind and nature. This is an evolving process of recognition; expansions of consciousness, to include greater and greater aspects of reality, widening the experience of life and broadening awareness. Krishnamurti tells us the “right kind of education, which is to foster an understanding of what is.” Self-awareness, free from the pressure to conform or succeed, enables the individual to see him or herself with clarity. To experience the various aspects of their being, mental, emotional and physical, in space and time. To witness they’re becoming.
The observer observes, seeing strengths and failings. In the awareness of potential a sense of that which is latent may be felt and known. Plato viewed education as a revelatory work, of making conscious an ever-present unrealised state; “education means, because the mind is active, a process of eliciting something that in a way we already know.”[18] The manifestation of the limitless within the limited, experienced through self-awareness, should be a concern of education. Alice A. Bailey talked in a similar way, saying that education “must enable him (student) to bridge the various aspects of his own mental nature.” Bailey is here referring to the three aspects of mind, which she states, “constitute the most important part of his {mans} nature,” and further, that “the fundamental necessity which today confronts the educational world is the need to relate the human mentality to the world of meaning, and not to the world of objective phenomena.”
She is suggesting that an important purpose of education is a bridging work. Building connections between the various aspects of mind, and facilitating the undistorted expression of ideas contacted.  Plato felt that “mind moves towards the ultimate end of knowledge”, the form [as he called it] of ‘The Good’. “Education culminates in the knowledge of this Form.” (PTEd) The ‘good’ we could say is the nature of man himself, it is the life within the form; the higher seeking expression through the lower, brought about through correct relationship. Knowledge of this form – ‘the good’ will bring about action consistent with its nature, known by its inherent quality –and imbued with meaning. Plato’s thoughts again, “right action implies acting in the light of the knowledge of the Good; knowledge of the Good is the perfection of education.” (PTEd)
Education has therefore as a fundamental purpose, the facilitating of relationship with the higher aspects of mans nature. Conscious apprehension of the place the individual holds to the whole and a realisation of the unity of all life, will grow out of such union, and social responsibility – ‘right action’, will naturally – as John Dewey rightly said – flow from the awareness of this essential unity. Alice A Bailey states that “true education is therefore the science of linking up the integral parts of man, and also of linking him up in turn with his immediate environment, and then with the greater whole in which he has to play his part. Each aspect, regarded as a lower aspect, can ever be the expression of the next higher.” The ‘integral parts of man’ constitute a whole.  Bodies of expression for the indwelling life, the observer – who and what he/she in truth is. Aiding the individual in the experience and realisation of his true being, has to be a primary function of education, and is I suggest, consistent with a definition of the purpose of life. Robert Louis Stevenson felt that “to be what we are, and to become what we are capable of becoming, is the only end of life.”[20]
The removal of elements that seek to mould a person into a particular shape, from all areas of education and society, will allow the individual to quite naturally be themselves, not some kind of constructed idea of self, but a realisation of ones inherent nature. Krishnamurti: “if we begin to understand the individual directly instead of looking at him through the screen of what we think he should be, then we no longer want to transform the individual into something else; our only concern is to help him to understand himself.” This is a concept held dear by the thinkers of the Enlightenment, who maintained that education that allowed the individual to reveal who and what they are was the highest goal in life.
Education & Society
Clearly education has a vital role and responsibility to play in the type of society we create and live in.  If we are to achieve peace within society the individuals who make up the society must be in harmony with themselves, this will naturally create living environments free from conflict, for the society is the individual. Krishnamurti expresses this idea “If we want to change existing [living] conditions, we must first transform ourselves, which means that we must become aware of our own actions, thoughts and feelings in everyday life.” The cultivation of Self-awareness must therefore be a fundamental purpose of all education.
Education is about freedom, and the promotion of freedom in which ‘the Good’ may be expressed, or as Krishnamurti puts it in a letter to the schools, “goodness can only flower in freedom”. It is important to   understand what we mean by freedom. Can there be freedom within the boundaries of thought, which, moving within the field of time is always bound by its content? The conditioned patterns that move, often unconsciously within our consciousness, animating our actions, determining the direction of our lives and perpetuating the belief systems adhered too.
The dismantling of restrictive patterns of thought – psychological conditioning – is a fundamental purpose of education. Krishnamurti tells us “consciousness is it content”, well, such content is largely unconscious. Self-awareness, borne of observation is (in the first place) the conscious recognition of content, enabling (conscious) action to take place, freed, albeit partially, from conditioning, which forever imposes limitation. Krishnamurti again, “there is an intelligent revolt which comes with self knowledge through the awareness of ones own thoughts and feelings,” and “there is radical transformation only when we understand our own conditioning and are free of it.” With this, education should be concerned, but, as Benjamin Creme, made clear “the fundamental purpose of education, as I see it, is to equip people to demonstrate their divine potential.” The realisation of ‘divine potential’ can only come about when educational environments in which liberation from all that limits and inhibits are cultivated. Crème goes on to say that “education should be the evocation of the potential – whether emotional, mental, or spiritual, of each individual child.“
This focuses the discussion of purpose in education towards a new underlying function; to allow for the demonstration of ‘divine potential.’ It is a function that is compatible with the various purposes stated throughout. Freedom, love, ‘the good’, unity, relationship, all find a common source, it is a point of wholeness without limitation, beyond definition. It is the nature of life itself and in the realisation of such, education needs to concern itself.  Let us no longer neglect nor stifle the most basic needs of the human being – the realisation and expression of their ‘divine potential’,  but rather design a living approach to education that sees such noble work as key to its puspose.
We hear all too often the truism that education should help the individual fulfil their potential. It is common sense that education should take as a primary purpose the realisation of our nature, which Crème suggests is divine. He of course is not alone in making such an assertion, in Rudolph Steiner’s theories of education, he makes clear, he sees the child as a ‘soul in incarnation’ and that “education becomes an aid to incarnation, to assist and harmonize the growth of the spiritual being into its physical form.”[24]
A key purpose of education then, is to allow for the realisation and expression of that which is innate, to give expression to and aid in the realisation of who and what we as human beings are. Alice A Bailey makes clear, “the increasing of soul awareness, the deepening of the flow of consciousness and the development of an inner continuity of awareness, plus the evocation of soul attributes and aspects upon the physical plane constitute the objective of all education.”  (ENA)  Whether that which is innate is described as ‘potential’ as Dewey terms it, or what Rousseau called ‘human freedom’, the ‘divine’ according to Benjamin Creme, or the ‘soul’ of which Steiner, Montessori and Alice Bailey speak. Education must be concerned with facilitating the relationship with and manifest expression of this aspect of mans nature, so long overlooked through ignorance and prejudice.
 
Endnotes
[1] Education in the New Age Alice A Bailey Lucis Trust 1954
[2] Education in the New Age (ENA) Interview with Benjamin Crème by George Catlin http://www.share-international.org/archives/education/ed_gcedu.htm
[3] Spiritual Ground of Education. (SGE) The necessity for spiritual insight Rudolph Steiner. http://wn.rsarchive.org/Education/19220816p01.html   
[4]  The Child. Maria Montessori
[5]  Education in the New Age. (ENA AB) Alice A Bailey.
[6] Faculty and Student Development in the 80s (FSD) L.Lee Knefelkamp
[7] The Educational Theory of Noam Chomsky (ETNC) http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Chomsky.html
[8] Education And Discipline” Bertrand Russell http://www.zona-pellucida.com/essay-russel.html
[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideology
[10] John Dewey
[11] http://www.chomsky.info/books/warfare02.htm (EII)
[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crisis_of_Democracy
[13] The Essential Chomsky. (EC)  New York, N.Y.: The New Press
[14] John Dewey Democracy and Education. 1916. http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/Projects/digitexts/dewey/d_e/chapter24.html
[15] http://arash-farzaneh.suite101.com/the-main-objectives-of-the-age-of-enlightenment-a105813 The Age of Reason and Natural Human Rights
[16] Carl Jung Paracelsus the Physician (1942)
[17]  http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/Projects/digitexts/dewey/d_e/chapter08.html Dewey. Democracy and Education. 1916.
[18] Plato’s theory of education in The Republic, (PTEd) an introduction by A.B.Finlay
[19]  Rudolph Steiner, Spiritual Ground of Education. The necessity for spiritual insight. http://wn.rsarchive.org/Education/19220816p01.html     
[20] Robert Louis Stevenson, Familiar Studies of Men and Books
[21] J Krishnamurti. Letters to the Schools. Krishnamurti Foundation Trust Ltd England.
[22]  Language and Freedom (LF) – chomsky.info http://www.chomsky.info/books/state02.pdf
[23]  The Child. Maria Montessori
[24]  UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol.XXIV, no. 3/4, 1994, p. 555-572..  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/…/steinere.pdf
  
  

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